2017年6月29日 星期四

Welcome to the World's Coolest Kindergarten歡迎來到世界上最酷的幼兒園 就在球場內!

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紐時周報精選 Welcome to the World's Coolest Kindergarten歡迎來到世界上最酷的幼兒園 就在球場內!
How Good Child Care Helps Mothers, and the Men They Raise優質托兒照顧 造福母子兩代
Welcome to the World's Coolest Kindergarten歡迎來到世界上最酷的幼兒園 就在球場內!
文/Andrew Keh

HAMBURG, Germany — It was late Tuesday afternoon at the Pestalozzi Foundation kindergarten, and a few dozen children and their parents were hanging around past the normal pickup hour.

There was no rush to get home, really. They were enjoying the view from the kindergarten's rear veranda: the inside of Millerntor-Stadion, the 29,546-seat stadium that is home to FC St. Pauli, as it hurriedly filled up for a midweek soccer game.

Staying after class has never been this fun.




Since 2010, the Pestalozzi Foundation has operated from inside the stadium, offering families perks that are most likely unique in the world of early childhood education.

The kindergarten borrows the stadium's field, tunnels and roof for group activities. Players from the team come by to read to the children. Teachers use the arena's main stand as a sort of giant break room. And on match days, parents clamor to reserve a spot to watch from the prime vantage point of the kindergarten's deck, within shouting distance of the rowdy southern stands.



Kindergarten in Germany is closer in concept to preschool in the United States, existing outside the formal school system as it serves children ages 3 to 6. The German word Kindertagesstatte, which is often shortened to Kita, denotes a day care center for children of any age. Since Pestalozzi accepts children 8 months to 6 years old, people referring to it use the words kindergarten and Kita interchangeably.

The kindergarten was conceptualized eight years ago, when FC St. Pauli was renovating the stadium. There was space for a building in the southwest corner, between two large rebuilt stands. The decision to use it as a child care center made sense perhaps only in the unconventional world of the socially conscious club and its neighborhood.



How Good Child Care Helps Mothers, and the Men They Raise優質托兒照顧 造福母子兩代
文/Claire Cain Miller

As many American parents know, hiring care for young children during the workday is punishingly expensive, costing the typical family about a third of its income.

Helping parents pay for that care would be expensive for society, too. Yet recent studies show that of any policy aimed to help struggling families, aid for high-quality care has the biggest economic payoff for parents and their children — and even their grandchildren. It has the biggest positive effect on women's employment and pay. It's especially helpful for low-income families, because it can propel generations of children toward increased earnings, better jobs, improved health, more education and decreased criminal activity as adults.



Affordable care for children under 5, long a goal of Democrats, is now being championed by Ivanka Trump.

The Department of Health and Human Services says child care should cost 7 percent of a family's income at most — but 42 percent of families who buy care for young children spend considerably more than that, according to census data analyzed by Beth Mattingly at the University of New Hampshire. A report by New America and Care.com put the average cost of child care in the United States at $16,514 a year.



It's children with parents who can least afford high-quality care who benefit most from it, research has found. That is because affluent children have better alternatives. For well-off children, some studies have linked day care, especially low-quality care early in life, to achievement and behavior problems.

A powerful new study — which demonstrated long-term results by following children from birth until age 35 — found that high-quality care during the earliest years can influence whether both mothers and children born into disadvantage lead more successful lives. The study was led by James J. Heckman, a Nobel laureate economist at the University of Chicago.



"They're engaged more in the workforce, they're now active participants of society, they're more educated, they have higher skills," Heckman said. "So what we've done is promoted mobility across generations."

The study analyzed two well-known experimental programs in North Carolina, which offered free, full-time care to low-income children age 8 weeks to 5 years, most of whom were black and lived with a single mother. The children in the control group were at home or in lower-quality programs.

The mothers of those in the experimental program earned more when the children were in preschool, and the difference was still there two decades later.







本文關鍵字child care指的是請人照顧小孩,可能請保姆(a babysitter)或送到托兒所(a day-care center)。

在美國請人照顧小孩很花錢,本文提到提供家計有困難的家庭(struggling families)或低收入家庭(low-income families)優質托兒照顧實驗計畫(experimental programs of high-quality child care)。

實驗結果發現母親和生在弱勢家庭的孩子都能過較成功的生活(Both mothers and children born into disadvantage lead more successful lives.)。句中的lead是度過的意思,例如lead a quiet life(過著寧靜的生活)。

文中提到川普的女兒伊凡卡擁護可負擔托兒照顧(champions affordable child care),她向國會遊說,希望國會改革稅制時,能加入托兒照顧費用可扣抵稅額(a deduction for child care expenses),但這項福利將在10年花掉聯邦政府5000億美元,恐怕不會得到國會支持。


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