2018年12月10日 星期一

When Birds Fall from the Sky 為牠們熄燈!讓建築物更友善鳥類

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When Birds Fall from the Sky  為牠們熄燈!讓建築物更友善鳥類
by Bruce E. Bagnell

Death is natural to all living things, but millions of birds are dying unnaturally in our major cities.


  Birds, said to be direct descendants of the once mighty dinosaurs, occupy every continent. Many bird species are migratory, traveling __1__ in great numbers, usually to warmer climates when autumn turns chilly and then back north when the warm weather of spring returns. This spectacle has a new, unnatural enemy, however. City buildings and lights kill hundreds of millions of birds annually.
  Birds use the sun, moon, starlight, and magnetic fields to guide them on their long-distance journeys across land and sea. When encountering skyscrapers and electric lights, however, migrating birds become __2__. Attracted to the lights, they collide at high speeds with concrete buildings and reinforced glass, __3__ serious injuries and even death. Most people don’t realize this, because street and sidewalk cleaners remove dead birds in the dawn hours before anyone notices them.
  Several volunteer organizations are __4__ the serious environmental issue of mass bird death. Lights Out volunteer groups are coming together to save the lives of birds across North America. Bird lovers in Baltimore, Toronto, New York City, Washington, D.C., and other cities comb the streets in the early hours to collect the remains of birds killed by __5__ into buildings the previous night. If they’re lucky, they find injured birds which can be rehabilitated. Recording data about the birds and the location of the buildings they flew into is a way to keep track of and __6__ further deaths. Other groups are asking architects to be aware of what bright lights and superstructures can do to __7__ of migrating birds. Since most people agree that we should design cities to accommodate birds rather than kill them, some places are now limiting the amount of light buildings can emit during migratory periods.
1. (A) accidentally  (B) respectively  (C) improperly  (D) seasonally
2. (A) confused  (B) delightful  (C) talented  (D) shameful
3. (A) cause  (B) causes  (C) causing  (D) are causing
4. (A) pretending to  (B) struggling to  (C) bowing to  (D) responding to
5. (A) evolving  (B) crashing  (C) squeezing  (D) intruding
6. (A) neglect  (B) encourage  (C) prevent  (D) increase
7. (A) flocks  (B) packs  (C) schools  (D) herds.


1. Many bird species are migratory, traveling seasonally in great numbers...

a. (A) accidentally adv. 意外地,偶然地
: by accident
Kelly accidentally spilled water on my dress.
(B) respectively adv. 分別地
Those two bikes belong to Anna and Amy respectively.
(C) improperly adv. 不正確地;不適當地
: properly adv. 正確地;適當地
People who are improperly dressed will be denied entrance to the restaurant.
(D) seasonally adv. 季節性地
Some animals’ fur sheds seasonally.
b. 根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。

2. When encountering skyscrapers and electric lights, however, migrating birds become confused.

a. (A) confused a. 感到困惑的
be confused about...  對……感到困惑
I’m confused about what the teacher just said. Could you explain it to me?
(B) delightful a. 令人愉快的
I really like Vicky because she has a delightful disposition.
(C) talented a. 有才能的;有天賦的
be talented in...  在……方面有才華/才能
Eddie is not good at sports, but he’s talented in writing.
(D) shameful a. 可恥的
Your behavior on Saturday was shameful, and you should apologize to Mark.
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

3. ... they collide at high speeds with concrete buildings and reinforced glass, causing serious injuries and even death.

a. 空格前省略了關係代名詞 which,原句實為:
... they collide at high speeds with concrete buildings and reinforced glass, which causes serious injuries and even death.
b. 形容詞子句中,若關係代名詞為主詞時,該子句可化簡為分詞片語,化簡原則如下:
1) 刪除關係代名詞;
2) 之後的動詞變成現在分詞;
3) 若動詞為 be 動詞,變成現在分詞 being 後可省略。
The door creaked open all by itself, causing the boys to run away in fear.
c. 根據上述,(C) 項應為正選。

4. ... are responding to the serious environmental issue of mass bird death.

a. (A) pretend to V  假裝(做)……
Jerry pretended not to see me when I passed by.
(B) struggle to V  努力/奮力(做)……
struggle vi. 努力;掙扎;奮鬥
Carla struggled to raise three kids on her own.
(C) bow to sb/sth  向某人鞠躬;向某人/某事屈服(= give in to...)
At the end of the show, the singer bowed to the crowd.
The government refused to bow to the terrorists’ demands.
(D) respond to N/V-ing  對……做出回應
The politician refused to respond to the reporter’s questions at the press conference.
b. 根據語意及用法,(D) 項應為正選。

5. ... to collect the remains of birds killed by crashing into buildings the previous night.

a. (A) evolve vi. 發展;進化
evolve into...  演變成……;進化成……
That small company evolved into a worldwide enterprise in five years.
(B) crash vi. 衝撞,撞擊
crash into...  撞上……
That car crashed into a gas station, causing a huge explosion.
(C) squeeze vi. 擠進,塞入
squeeze into...  擠進/擠入……
The six of us squeezed into a car that had only four seats.
(D) intrude vi. 入侵
intrude into...  入侵……
Two foreign planes intruded into the airspace of that country.
b. 根據語意及用法,(B) 項應為正選。

6. ... is a way to keep track of and prevent further deaths.

a. (A) neglect vt. 忽略,忽視
The more you neglect the problem, the more likely it will grow bigger.
(B) encourage vt. 鼓勵
My parents encouraged me to join a summer camp to make new friends.
(C) prevent vt. 防止,預防
prevent sb/sth from V-ing  防止某人/某物……
You should put the meat into the fridge to prevent it from going bad.
(D) increase vt. 增加;增強
We came up with a plan to increase our sales.
b. 根據語意,(C) 項應為正選。

7. ... to be aware of what bright lights and superstructures can do to flocks of migrating birds.

a. (A) flock n. 鳥群;羊群;人群
Teddy saw a flock of birds flying overhead on its way south for the winter.
(B) pack n.(狼、犬等的)一群
When we got to the top of the hill, we saw a pack of black dogs.
(C) school n. 海生動物群;魚群
There is a school of dolphins swimming beside the boat.
(D) herd n. 畜群,獸群
Jennifer dreams about raising a herd of horses on her farm.
b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。

collide vi. 相撞(常與介詞 with 並用)
reinforce vt. 加強,強化(本文為過去分詞作形容詞用)
rehabilitate vt. 使康復
superstructure n.(建築物的)上層建築/上部結構
emit vt. 散發,發出

1. be attracted to...  被……所吸引
: be drawn to...
Dillon was attracted to the girl with blue eyes and blonde hair.

2. keep track of...  追蹤/記錄……
Once we organize our files, it will be easier to keep track of everything.

3. be aware of...  了解/察覺……
aware a. 察覺的;有意識的
be aware + that 子句  了解/察覺……
Are you aware of the consequences of smoking?
I wasn’t aware that I had left my headlights on.

4. the amount of + 不可數名詞  ……的數量
比較 the number of + 複數名詞  ……的數目
注意 “the amount / number of N” 作主詞時,因 the amount、the number 為主詞,其後的介詞片語(of N)作形容詞,修飾其前的主詞,故其後動詞均用第三人稱單數動詞。
The amount of rainfall in this area has been low over the last few years.
The number of motorcycles in this city increases every year.

1. descendant n. 後代,後裔

2. migratory a. 遷移的
: migrate vi. 遷移
migrate to + 地方名詞  遷移/移居到某地
Many migratory birds fly south for the winter every year.
Every winter, hummingbirds in North America migrate to Mexico.

3. spectacle n. 奇觀,壯觀的景象
That concert drew an audience of 30,000, constituting a great spectacle.

4. magnetic a. 有磁性的
A compass is ruled by the magnetic force of the Earth.

5. encounter vt.(偶然)遇見
: come across...
= run into...
If you encounter any problems, please don’t hesitate to call me.

6. concrete a. 混凝土製的;具體的 & n. 混凝土

7. volunteer n. 義工 & vi. 當義工 & a. 自願的,志願的
Those volunteers are doing their best to help the poor.
Sean often spends his leisure time volunteering at the orphanage.
My mother is doing volunteer work at a local hospital.

8. comb vt. & vi. 徹底搜尋;梳理 & n. 梳子
comb one’s hair  梳頭髮
My grandfather combed the house looking for his glasses.
Albert combed through the shelves looking for a novel with J.K. Rowling’s autograph in it.
艾伯特仔細在書架上尋找有 J.K. 羅琳親筆簽名的小說。
It is said that combing one’s hair at midnight will bring bad luck.

9. architect n. 建築師
: architecture n. 建築風格;建築學

10. accommodate vt. 容納
: have room / capacity for...
The new auditorium can accommodate 2,000 students.



  數個志工組織正對大規模鳥類死亡的嚴重環境議題做出回應。Lights Out 計畫的志工團體攜手拯救整個北美洲的鳥類。在巴爾的摩、多倫多、紐約、華盛頓特區及其他城市的鳥類愛好者在凌晨時分仔細搜尋街道,收拾前一晚撞上建築物而死亡的鳥類遺體。如果幸運的話,他們會找到得以康復的受傷鳥兒。記錄有關這些鳥類的數據以及牠們撞上的建築物所在位置是一種追蹤與防止更多鳥兒死亡的方法。其他團體則要求建築師要了解明亮的燈光和上層建築會對成群的遷徙鳥類造成什麼影響。由於大多數人都認為我們應該設計一座可以容納鳥類而非導致牠們死亡的城市,如今有些地方限制了建築物在鳥類遷徙期間所散發的照明度。
1. D 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. A





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