2019年1月10日 星期四

被好萊塢遺忘的戰地女記者 Hollywood’s Forgotten Heroes: Female War Correspondents

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紐時周報精選 被好萊塢遺忘的戰地女記者 Hollywood's Forgotten Heroes: Female War Correspondents
流行音樂 改朝換代 The Old Pop Music Is Over. Introducing a Playbook for Pop 2.0.
被好萊塢遺忘的戰地女記者 Hollywood's Forgotten Heroes: Female War Correspondents
文/Melena Ryzik

The voice has stayed with Rosamund Pike. For the new movie "A Private War," the British actress transformed her posh, rounded speech into a distinctive American rasp, to play Marie Colvin, the Long Island-raised, London-based journalist who was killed in Syria in 2012. On tough occasions, Pike still imagines using her tone: It suggests a woman who gets things done.


That voice, along with the patch Colvin wore after she lost an eye to a grenade in Sri Lanka, became her calling cards as she catapulted into war zones around the world, and wrote deeply felt, courageously reported articles for The Sunday Times in London. "A Private War"aims to realistically portray her struggles and explain why she persisted. And it could have scarcely arrived at a more apt, and fraught, time.


"This movie has all Marie's gestures and movements," the CNN and PBS anchor Christiane Amanpour, who knew Colvin, wrote in an email. "She was killed, probably directly targeted, for getting the truth out about the Syria war. It's especially relevant given the murder of the Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi last year. He too was simply speaking the truth."


Colvin's story — her rise as an international correspondent reporting on conflicts in the Middle East, the Balkans and elsewhere; her bravery going into hostile territory to document the civilian cost of war; and ultimately, her death while covering a relentless battle in Homs — is in some ways tailor-made for the big screen. She was undeniably gutsy but suffered post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychological and physical ills from witnessing so much trauma.


Women like Colvin — and those before her, like the British correspondent Clare Hollingworth, who broke the news of World War II in Europe, and pioneering photojournalists like Gerda Taro and Dickey Chapelle — have been at the front of conflicts for a century or more, delivering rich material, with fascinating personal tales.


And yet "A Private War" is one of only a handful of Hollywood features that put the focus squarely on female war correspondents in the field — perhaps only the third or fourth such film in decades.

By contrast, dozens have followed male journalists abroad, said Matthew Ehrlich, author of "Journalism in the Movies" and a professor emeritus at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


Accurately reflecting these women in pop culture "is massively important," Amanpour said. "Especially since females in the field are often portrayed as frivolous, slightly hysterical, sexually promiscuous appendages!

I still feel so bad for Martha Gellhorn, the brilliant WWII correspondent, who's forever known as Ernest Hemingway's (third) wife."


※說文解字看新聞 文/張佑生

標題的Forgotten Heroes與「時代」雜誌選出的2018「年度風雲人物」(Person of the Year),字面意義南轅北轍,指涉的同是致力於揭露、訴說真相的記者。Unsung heroes也是指「無名英雄」。

聲調和眼罩成為柯爾文出入各地戰區的calling card。這個詞在美語指「名片」,英語則是「電話卡」:英語用visiting card稱呼名片。本文採象徵意義,類似「招牌特徵」:The floods were the calling card of climate change.

女性戰地記者典型在夙昔,卻很少成為好萊塢電影主角。一手能掌握(handful)的量當然很少,中文對應字是「掬」。艾略特(T. S. Eliot)的詩作「荒原」(The Waste Land)寫道:I will show you fear in a handful of dust.「一掬塵土中的恐懼」源自古希臘女預言家西比爾(Sibyl)的傳說,指的是對不斷老化卻求死不得的恐懼。艾氏好用典,此為一例。

流行音樂 改朝換代 The Old Pop Music Is Over. Introducing a Playbook for Pop 2.0.
文/Jon Caramanica

What pop means changes depending on what angle you're looking from. It can be a descriptor of audience size, indicating something that's popular, or it can be a genre tag, specifying a sound. But for much of the past three decades, these two definitions have effectively been one and the same.


You know the sort: Katy Perry's confetti cheer, Justin Timberlake's feather-light chirps, Lady Gaga's exorbitant theater, Taylor Swift's guileless guile. Music that strives for gloss, pep, ecstasy, spectacle. Often an expression of whiteness, too. A one-size-fits-all solution.


For a time, in the 1980s, this kind of pop music — think of Michael Jackson and Madonna — was effectively monoculture, which is why the two meanings of pop have been so tightly tethered and so difficult to disentangle.


But in the past couple of years, this framework has been almost completely dismantled, owing in large part to the widespread adoption of streaming. What were once regarded merely as pop subgenres — K-pop, Latin trap, melodic hip-hop and more — have become the center of the conversation.


This is not an arbitrary agglomeration of styles. This is Pop 2.0 — music that comes from several different scenes but works with its own distinct set of rules. It is the first time in decades that the playbook for pop success has been updated, and it has profoundly reshaped the sound of America.


Previously, when artists from hip-hop, country or hard rock were said to be going pop, that implied they were sacrificing something essential about themselves in exchange for something plastic and transitory. Pop was a softening. A compromise.


Now, thanks to the largely frictionless internet, and the evolution in how Billboard calculates its charts — accounting for streaming data in addition to sales and radio play — these styles top the charts in unfiltered fashion. Hip-hop almost completely dominates streaming. Latin trap and reggaeton thrive on YouTube.

K-pop, the dominant sound of young South Korea, has become a live-concert blockbuster and outrageously popular online worldwide.


All of that has made for Billboard charts that look vastly different than they did a decade ago and sets the template for how all of pop music will sound moving forward.


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